唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 56.為何如此多問

唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 56.為何如此多問

講師:唐瑜凌先生

八佾篇第十五章【經文】 子入太廟,每事問。或曰:孰謂鄹人之子知禮乎。入太廟,每事問。子聞之,曰:是禮也。

本集課程重點包括:

一、太廟是指周公廟

      太廟是供奉先祖的處所,魯國是成王封給周公的封地,雖然周公留在朝中,讓兒子伯禽前往魯國,可是周公依然是魯國始祖,子入太廟,就是進入周公廟。周成王還賜予魯國,可以用天子之禮來祭祀周公,因此魯國太廟中的的禮儀十分完備。

 

二、多問是一種學習法

      問得廣泛、問得明白、問得徹底,才可以學得更通透。孔子的父親曾經當過鄹邑大夫,所謂「鄹人之子」就是指孔子。孔子入太廟每事問,包括問儀式、問樂器、問禮器、問供品、問陳設、問執事人員、問應有的禮節等。孔子問的時機,應該是正式祭祀前演禮之時,如此才有機會問得深入。因為每事問,所以有人以為孔子不懂禮,才會有那麼多的問題,這是誤解。

 

三、為何要問禮?

      《中庸》讚嘆:「舜好問而好察邇言」,古代的聖王也會把事情問明白。本章可見孔子的求學精神,不只是禮的條文,還要問禮的精神、意義、價值、成效、如何趨吉避凶,這些都在國家的祭祀典禮當中。祭祖代表不忘本,更要讓祖德流芳,如果懂得學習孔子的求學方法,了解孔子如何傳承古道,對我們人生會有很大的幫助。

 

八佾篇第十五章白話翻譯

【字詞解釋】

鄹人:鄹,ㄗㄡ,指魯國鄹邑。孔子父親曾為鄹邑大夫,故稱鄹人。

 

【白話解釋】

      孔子入周公廟觀演禮時,見到廟裡的事物,如禮器、祭品、祭禮、樂器、樂舞、音樂演奏等的內涵,皆問之。有人說,誰說鄹人之子(孔子的父親孔紇曾經當過鄹邑大夫,故鄹人之子指孔子)知道禮呢,他入太廟,每事都要問人,知禮者不當復問。孔子聽聞此言論,便說,此問即是禮,因魯國祭太廟,用四代禮樂,多不常見。故夫子每事問,表示謹慎。且孔子參觀演禮,既是觀禮,則有學習或傳習之意,每事皆可以問,這就是禮。

 

【章旨】

      此章言夫子慎禮,並兼論魯之僭禮。

 

《論語講要》原文

      「子入太廟,每事問。」

      孔子入周公廟,見廟裡的事物,如禮器等,皆問之。

      包咸注:「太廟,周公廟也。」周公是魯國的始封之君,為魯太祖,故其廟稱為太廟。包氏以為,孔子此時已在魯國為仕,因助祭而入太廟。閻若璩四書釋地認為,當祭祀時,雍雍肅肅,不容許每事問。閻氏引顧瑞屏說,孔子入廟,當在宿齊時,始可每事問。或是平日往觀,如荀子所載,孔子觀於魯桓公廟,有攲器,問守廟者曰,此是何器之類。

      案,孔子入周公廟,不必在助祭時,應當是在太廟演禮時,孔子入廟觀禮,故可每事問。

      「或曰。孰謂鄹人之子知禮乎。入太廟,每事問。」

      鄹,是魯國的鄹邑,在今山東省曲阜縣。邢疏:「鄹人,魯鄹邑大夫孔子父叔梁紇也。左傳襄公十年稱鄹人紇。」鄹人之子,即是指稱孔子。

      或,是或人,不具姓名者。此人說:「誰說鄹人紇之子知禮乎。他入太廟,每事都要問人。」

      孔安國注:「時人多言孔子知禮,或人以為,知禮者不當復問。」

      「子聞之,曰,是禮也。」

      是,即指每事問。孔子聞或人之言,便說,此問即是禮。

      劉氏正義:「魯祭太廟,用四代禮樂,多不經見,故夫子每事問之,以示審慎。」

      孔安國注:「雖知之,當復問,慎之至也。」

      董子春秋繁露郊事對篇:「孔子入太廟,每事問,慎之至也。」

      案,孔子入太廟,參觀演禮。演是演習。既是觀禮,則有學習或傳習之意,每事皆可以問,此問即是禮,故曰是禮也。

 

Teacher Tang Yuling will accompany you to read The Analects 

56. Book 3 Ba Yi (The Eight-row Dance), Chapter 15

 

[Text]

The Master, when he entered the grand temple, asked about everything. Some one said, “Who say that the son of the man of Zou knows the rules of propriety! He has entered the grand temple and asks about everything.” The Master heard the remark, and said, “This is a rule of propriety.”

 

Highlights of this lecture include:

1. The grant temple is the shrine for the Duke of Zhou

  The grand temple was a place for worshipping the ancestors of the state ruler. The first Duke of Zhou (Zhougong周公), being enfiefed in the State of Lu by Zhou Emperor Cheng周成王 but still served as Regent in Zhou’s court at the capital, sent his son, Bo Qin伯禽, to take up the duties in Lu. In Lu, the grand temple was dedicated to its founder Zhougong, therefore it was also called the Temple of the Duke of Zhou. Emperor Cheng granted Zhougong’s descendants, the heads of Lu State, the privilege to worship him as that of a sovereign could do. That is why ancestral worshipping rituals carried out in the Zhougong temple were so well-equipped and the rites performed so comprehensive.

 

2. Learning by asking

  People always wanted to know “why” or “how come”? People can learn in-depth about the questions asked, if they have gone far enough to make things clear and thorough. Confucius’s father was once the magistrate of the township Zou鄹邑. The so-said “the son of the man of Zou” was referred to Confucius. On entering the grand temple, Confucius asked almost each and every thing about ancestral worshipping, about related ceremonies, musical instruments, sacrificial vessels, offering dishes and their arrangements, about the staff entailed and the established protocol.

  The circumstance of when Confucius could ask about these questions was probably during rehearsal before formal worshipping began. When the ceremonial rehearsal was conducted, it was opportune time to ask questions valid to the situation. Viewers were confused whether Confucius was really an expert in propriety, because he asked so many questions about the rituals of ancestral worship as if he knew very little. In fact, it was their misapprehension.

 

3. Why did Confucius ask about the rules of propriety?

  It is said in chapter 6, Zhong Yong, “Shun loved to question others, and to study their words, though they might be shallow.” Ancient sageous kings dug deep into questions until they got the answers. This chapter reflected Confucius’s eager to learn and practice. To him, the rules of propriety were not mere codes to follow, he asked about their origins of life force, meanings, significances, efficacy, and their ability to effectuate good fate and negate all doom and gloom. The mastery of the rules of propriety has implicit values in Chinese ethos. Ancestral worship reflects the deep gratifying feelings for our forefathers and the good deeds they had done. If we were to understand how Confucius took every occasion as an opportunity to learn; if we were to understand how he learnt so hard in order to pass on the lineage of Chinese culture and wisdom, it will help us to live a more worthy life.

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2020-3-23

唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》

系列課程
唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要—1.序言 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 11.溫良恭儉讓 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 12.父在觀其志 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 13.禮之用 和為貴 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 14.信近於義 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 15.君子如何好學 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 16.貧而無諂 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 17.不患人之不己知 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 18.為政以德 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 19.思無邪 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 20.道之以德 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 21.孔子一生的年譜 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 22.孟懿子問孝 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 23.孟武伯問孝 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 24.子游問孝 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 25.子夏問孝 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 26.吾與回言終日 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 27.看人的方法 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 28.溫故而知新 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 29.君子不器 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 30.子貢問君子 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 1-2.問與答 什麼是天命 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 2.學而時習之 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 3.其為人也孝弟 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 4.巧言令色 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 5.吾日三省 唐瑜淩老師陪你讀論語講要 5-2.問與答 談學習與改過 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 6.道千乘之國 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 7.弟子入則孝 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 8.賢賢易色 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 9.君子不重則不威 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 10.慎終追遠 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 31.君子周而不比 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 32.學思並重 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 33.攻乎異端 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 34.如何求取真知 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 35.如何為官 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》36.如何讓人民信服 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》37.使民敬忠以勸 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》39.人而無信不知其可也 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》40.預知百代以後 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》41.諂媚而無勇的行為 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》38.孝道與為政 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》42.是可忍也,孰不可忍也 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》43.隆重卻無意義的典禮 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》44.禮樂被厭惡的原因 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》45.大哉問禮之本 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》46.亂世中孔子的感慨 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》47.諂媚泰山神有用嗎 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》48.君子的爭與不爭 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》48-1.老子、孔子的爭與不爭1 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》48-2.老子、孔子的爭與不爭2 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》49.學詩的啟發 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》50.文獻的重要 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》51.讓人看不下去的盛大典禮 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》52.天下事瞭如指掌 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 53.祭祀的要領 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 54.公心才是正途 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 55.完備的典章制度 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 56.為何如此多問 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》57.比力量更重要的事
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