唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 54.公心才是正途

唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 54.公心才是正途

講師:唐瑜凌先生

八佾篇第十三章【經文】 王孫賈問曰:與其媚於奧,寧媚於竈,何謂也。子曰:不然,獲罪於天,無所禱也。

本集課程重點包括:

一、本章歷史背景

      王孫賈是衛靈公很欣賞的臣子,是治軍的人才。靈公雖然寵信夫人南子,但是因為還懂得用各類賢才,所以不至於失政亡國。孔子當時周遊列國到了衛國,成為南子想要拉攏的對象,王孫賈看到孔子去見南子,誤會孔子想走南子的路線在衛國求官,所以用一句成語來請問孔子,表面上是請教,實際上是暗諷。

 

二、王孫賈的言外之意

      王孫賈的言外之意是告訴孔子,與其你諂媚南子,不如諂媚我王孫賈,南子比喻為奧神,王孫賈比喻為灶神,奧神地位高,灶神地位低,可是灶神具有實權,猶如王孫賈是具有實權的大臣。

 

三、孔子如何回應此難題

      孔子是六十而耳順之人,耳朵一聽就能知道對方的心意,這種能力要慢慢練習,隨著知識背景增廣,人情世故通達,才能造就一副好耳力。所以孔子當然了解王孫賈的言外之意,面對這個具有暗諷意味的難題,孔子竟然說:「不然。」全盤否定王孫賈的說法,並回答道:「獲罪於天,無所禱也。」意思是我孔某不是一位諂媚求官的人物,而是知道如果不按照天道而行,獲罪於天帝,那諂媚禱告都是枉然。在衛國為官辦事,如果不能發心為公,以誠事君(衛靈公),來為人民謀福利,只想著自己而到處諂媚巴結,這是完全錯誤而且無用的行為。

 

八佾篇第十三章白話翻譯

【字詞解釋】

奧:ㄠˋ,古時房屋坐北朝南,室中西南隅稱之為奧,尊者居之,也是祭祀主堂室之中霤神的處所。

竈:ㄗㄠˋ,指灶神,主管飲食,地位比中霤神低,但是具有實權。

 

【白話解釋】

      王孫賈是衛國大夫。孔子周遊列國,在衛國時,頗受衛靈公尊敬。靈公夫人南子,品行不端,但有才能,欲藉孔子之名以壯自己聲勢,召見孔子,孔子見之。王孫賈誤會孔子來衛只是求官,故問孔子,「與其媚於奧,寧媚於竈」,是什麼意思呢?王孫賈以奧比喻南子,以竈比喻自己,意思是告訴孔子,你求南子,不如求我王孫賈。孔子說,這話不對,如果一個人非分而求,所造的惡得罪上天,必受天譴,則無處祈禱免禍。

 

【章旨】

      此章言夫子以禮進退,不求媚於人也。

 

《論語講要》原文

      「王孫賈問曰。與其媚於奧,寧媚於竈。何謂也。」

      孔安國注:「王孫賈,衛大夫也。欲使孔子求昵之,微以世俗之言感動之也。」

      皇疏:「時孔子至衛,賈誦此舊語,以感切孔子,欲令孔子求媚於己,如人之媚竈也。」

      奧:據爾雅釋宮及其注疏說,室中西南隅謂之奧。古時房屋坐北朝南,門向南開,而偏近於東,則西南角為隱深之處。尊者居之。祭五祀中的中霤神,亦在此處祭之。

      竈:設在廚房,炊煮食物之器名為竈。五祀中有竈神。

      禮記祭法篇五祀鄭注:「中霤主堂室居處。竈主飲食之事。」媚奧媚竈兩句,是當時的世俗語。中霤地位比竈神高,但竈神主管飲食,有實權。因此,俗語說,與其求媚於奧,寧可求媚於竈。

      孔子周遊列國,在衛國時,頗受衛靈公尊敬。靈公夫人南子,品行不端,但有才能,欲藉孔子之名以壯自己聲勢,召見孔子。孔子見之。王孫賈誤會孔子來衛求官,故問孔子,與其媚於奧,寧媚於竈,是何意思。王孫賈以奧比喻南子,以竈比喻自己。他的意思是告訴孔子,你求南子,不如求我王孫賈。

      周柄中四書典故辨正:「奧者室中深隱之處,以比南子。竈是明處。蓋謂借援於宮闈之中,不如求合於朝廷之上耳。」

      「子曰:不然。獲罪於天,無所禱也。」

      孔子說:這話不對。如果得罪上天,則無處祈禱。

      孔子說出「不然」二字,即將王孫賈問意完全否定。再以獲罪於天二語令其警惕。老子說:「天網恢恢,疏而不失。」一個人非分而求,所造之惡,便是得罪於天,必受天譴。

 

Teacher Tang Yuling will accompany you to read The Analects      

54. Book 3 Ba Yi (The Eight-row Dance), Chapter 13

 

[Text]

Wang Sun Jia asked, saying, “What is the meaning of the saying, ‘It is better to pay court to the furnace than to the southwest corner?’” The Master said, “Not so. He who offends against Heaven has none to whom he can pray.”

 

Highlights of this lecture include:

1. Historical Background

  Wang-sun Jia was the military minister of Wei; and was weighted highly by his master Duke Ling of Wei. Though Duke Ling was doted and trust unduly upon his wife Nan-zi, he was not dumb. He appointed able and talented persons to help him governed the state. This prevented Wei from falling apart quickly. When Confucius arrived at Wei during his peregrination, the infamous Madame Nan-zi attempted to pull him in her power bloc of influence. On seeing Confucius did not refuse Nan-zi’s request and met her eventually, Wang-sun Jia thought Confucius might wanted to seek a position with her influence. So, the military minister ostensibly raised the question about an idiomatic phrase which was actually intended to ridicule Confucius.

2. Wang-sun Jia’s underlying intention

  Wang-sun Jia’s underlying intention was to told Confucius that ‘you, the Master, would be better to flatter me—Wang-sun Jia, than to be personally associated with Nan-zi. Nan-zi was referred as the “Ao奧” tutelary god of the house. “Zao竈” god of the hearth or kitchen stove was referred to himself who had actual power in the Court of Wei. “Ao” was god of household occupied the post of greatest honor in the southwestern corner of the hall and was of higher rank deities than that of the lar of stove “zao”. But the lar of stove was more useful and has more actual power of influence. Wang-sun Jia thought he had more proper power than Nan-zi. He compared Nan-zi and himself in accordance with the rank and power of the gods of house and of stove in the deities.

 

3. How did Confucius reply?

  At sixty, the Master had the capacity to understand a man thoroughly out his speech. His ears became an obedient organ for the reception of truth. This capacity of understand just by listening could be enhanced by the accumulation of knowledge and experience, as well as a lot of practices. The Master, in front of this ridicule, fully understood Wang-sun Jia’s underlying meaning. He replied, “Not so”, totally rebuked Wang-sun Jia. The Master was firm and said: “He who offends against Heaven has none to whom he can pray.” which means that “I, Confucius, am not the one whom would resort to flattery for a position. This is an act that go against the Way of Heaven and an offense to the Heavenly God. He who offends against heaven has none to whom he can pray for help, it is useless to flatteringly pray anywhere else. As an official of Wei state, Wang-sun Jia should serve public good as the way to serve Wei’s lord--Duke Ling with all sincerity, rather than seeking personal interest. Otherwise, there is no one to whom you can pray for help.

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唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》

系列課程
唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要—1.序言 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 11.溫良恭儉讓 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 12.父在觀其志 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 13.禮之用 和為貴 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 14.信近於義 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 15.君子如何好學 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 16.貧而無諂 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 17.不患人之不己知 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 18.為政以德 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 19.思無邪 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 20.道之以德 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 21.孔子一生的年譜 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 22.孟懿子問孝 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 23.孟武伯問孝 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 24.子游問孝 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 25.子夏問孝 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 26.吾與回言終日 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 27.看人的方法 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 28.溫故而知新 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 29.君子不器 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 30.子貢問君子 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 1-2.問與答 什麼是天命 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 2.學而時習之 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 3.其為人也孝弟 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 4.巧言令色 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 5.吾日三省 唐瑜淩老師陪你讀論語講要 5-2.問與答 談學習與改過 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 6.道千乘之國 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 7.弟子入則孝 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 8.賢賢易色 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 9.君子不重則不威 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 10.慎終追遠 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 31.君子周而不比 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 32.學思並重 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 33.攻乎異端 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 34.如何求取真知 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 35.如何為官 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》36.如何讓人民信服 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》37.使民敬忠以勸 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》39.人而無信不知其可也 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》40.預知百代以後 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》41.諂媚而無勇的行為 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》38.孝道與為政 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》42.是可忍也,孰不可忍也 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》43.隆重卻無意義的典禮 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》44.禮樂被厭惡的原因 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》45.大哉問禮之本 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》46.亂世中孔子的感慨 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》47.諂媚泰山神有用嗎 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》48.君子的爭與不爭 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》48-1.老子、孔子的爭與不爭1 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》48-2.老子、孔子的爭與不爭2 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》49.學詩的啟發 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》50.文獻的重要 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》51.讓人看不下去的盛大典禮 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》52.天下事瞭如指掌 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 53.祭祀的要領 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 54.公心才是正途 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 55.完備的典章制度 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 56.為何如此多問 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》57.比力量更重要的事
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