唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 53.祭祀的要領

唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 53.祭祀的要領

講師:唐瑜凌先生

八佾篇第十二章【經文】 祭如在,祭神如神在。子曰:吾不與祭,如不祭。

本集課程重點包括:

一、祭祀祖先的方法

      「祭如在,祭神如神在」是古書上面的話,「祭如在」就是祭祀自己的祖先時,想像祖先如在眼前。古代有兩種祭法,第一種是讓很像祖先的孩子,代表祖先接受祭拜;第二種就是立牌位,用牌位來代表祖先。無論是孩子還是立牌位來代表,都要觀想祖先就在眼前,如此才會戒慎恐懼、態度會肅穆、言行會專注,並且具有誠意,感應之道就在其中。

 

二、祭祀神明的方法

      「祭神如神在」,祭神跟祭祀家中的祖先一樣,要如同神明就在眼前,《中庸》裡面也說「事死如事生,事亡如事存。」所以林放問禮之本,孔子告訴他誠意的重要,禮要特別講究誠意,「如在」地去觀想,才會有誠意。

 

三、親自參與祭祀的重要

      「吾不與祭,如不祭。」意思是主祭者不參與祭祀,就如同沒有祭祀,因為主祭者無法觀想如在眼前,也沒辦法親自表達誠意,就如同迎請貴客,結果主人不在,那真是太失禮了!所以古代祭祀要先齋後祭,祭祀前散齋七天,約束自己不要應酬享受;再致齋三天,專注地回想父母親或祖先的行誼,如此到了祭祀之日,才能有最誠意的觀想與表現。君子慎獨也是這個道理,平時的思想,都是在培養自己的誠意,養成待人處世的能力。

 

八佾篇第十二章白話翻譯

【白話解釋】

      無論祭鬼祭神,祭祀都要如鬼神在你面前一般。祭鬼,一心想像祖先就在眼前。祭神,一心所想像所祭的神就在眼前。這樣的竭誠祭祀,就能感得鬼神來享。孔子說:我如果因事或因病不能親自參與祭祀,而找人代理,就沒辦法親自竭誠想像,不能感應,所以使人代祀的祭祀如同未祭祀。

 

【章旨】

      此章言孔子重祭禮在親祭,觀想如在目前,誠敬之心提起,始有感應。

 

《論語講要》原文

      「祭如在。祭神如神在。」

      程氏集釋引陳善捫蝨新語,以祭如在二句為古語。孔安國注:「祭如在,言事死如事生也。祭神,謂祭百神也。」皇疏:「祭如在,祭人鬼也。人子奉親,事死如事生,是如在也。」

      無論祭鬼祭神,都要如在。祭鬼,一心想像祖先就在眼前。祭神,一心想像所祭的神就在眼前。這樣竭誠的祭祀,就能感得鬼神來享。如在的在字非常重要,一心觀想,鬼神即在,觀想始有感應。

      「子曰,吾不與祭,如不祭。」

      包咸注:「孔子或出,或病,而不自親祭,使攝者為之。不致肅敬於心,與不祭同。」與祭,就是親祭。攝字作代字講。孔子因事或因病不能親祭,而使人代祭。無由親自竭誠想像,不能感應。故此次祭祀如未祭然。

 

Teacher Tang Yuling will accompany you to read The Analects  

53. Book 3 Ba Yi (The Eight-row Dance), Chapter 12

 

[Text]

He sacrificed to the dead, as if they were present. He sacrificed to the spirits, as if the spirits were present. The Master said, “I consider my not being present at the sacrifice, as if I did not sacrifice.”

 

Highlights of this lecture include:

1. Ancestral sacrifice and worshipping method

  “When he offered sacrifices (to his forefathers) as if they were present; in offering to gods as if the gods were present” was a saying from ancient text. When offered sacrifices to one’s forefathers, he had to form a mental picture of the presence of his ancestor. There were two ways to note the incorporeal presence of an ancestor: to pick a child who looked like the ancestor as a surrogate to receive the offerings of sacrifice, or, to use spirit tablet as token of ancestral worship. Both ways need to image that the ancestor was right in the front. Only by then would one be sincerely cautious and fearful, would his attitude be solemn, his words and actions focused. Communications between the living and the manes could be sensed and responded in form of feedbacks.

 

2. Gods-worshipping methods

  In offering to gods as if the gods were present, was similar to ancestral sacrifice. As one was to offer sacrifice to gods and spirits, they were to be worshipped as if they were present. As chapter 19 of the book of Zhong Yong said, “They served the dead as they would have served them alive; they served the departed as they would have served them had they been continued among them.” Therefore, when Lin Fang asked the fundamentals of ritual propriety, the Master told him about the importance of sincerity. Ritual propriety should highlight true feelings and sincerity. A profound feeling for “as if the present of...” revealed the impressive bearing of sincerity.

 

3. To take part in offering rituals was important

  “I consider my not being present at the sacrifice, as if I did not sacrifice.” If the key worshipper was absent from the sacrifice rituals, it was an extreme misconduct for the entire event. Just as a banquet    without a host, it was meaningless and rude to his invited guests to come over because they were not heartily welcome by their host. Therefore, a seven-day fast before the sacrifice rituals would take place before the event called the “restrained fasting” or sanzhai散齋; During which the key worshipper had to abstain from social pleasures. Another three-day fast called the “strict fasting” or zhizai致齋 would have to focus on the memory of the merits and cordiality of the passed parents and ancestors. During which the key worshipper had the time to closely observe and feel grateful for the ancestors. The Confucian way of careful introspection when in solitude. It was an everyday life practice of a junzi’s character building process which emphasized the capacities of daily self-refection, respectful cautiousness, as well as the expression of sincerity in human relations.

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2020-3-23

唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》

系列課程
唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要—1.序言 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 11.溫良恭儉讓 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 12.父在觀其志 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 13.禮之用 和為貴 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 14.信近於義 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 15.君子如何好學 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 16.貧而無諂 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 17.不患人之不己知 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 18.為政以德 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 19.思無邪 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 20.道之以德 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 21.孔子一生的年譜 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 22.孟懿子問孝 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 23.孟武伯問孝 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 24.子游問孝 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 25.子夏問孝 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 26.吾與回言終日 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 27.看人的方法 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 28.溫故而知新 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 29.君子不器 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 30.子貢問君子 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 1-2.問與答 什麼是天命 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 2.學而時習之 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 3.其為人也孝弟 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 4.巧言令色 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 5.吾日三省 唐瑜淩老師陪你讀論語講要 5-2.問與答 談學習與改過 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 6.道千乘之國 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 7.弟子入則孝 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 8.賢賢易色 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 9.君子不重則不威 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 10.慎終追遠 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 31.君子周而不比 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 32.學思並重 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 33.攻乎異端 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 34.如何求取真知 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 35.如何為官 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》36.如何讓人民信服 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》37.使民敬忠以勸 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》39.人而無信不知其可也 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》40.預知百代以後 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》41.諂媚而無勇的行為 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》38.孝道與為政 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》42.是可忍也,孰不可忍也 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》43.隆重卻無意義的典禮 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》44.禮樂被厭惡的原因 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》45.大哉問禮之本 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》46.亂世中孔子的感慨 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》47.諂媚泰山神有用嗎 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》48.君子的爭與不爭 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》48-1.老子、孔子的爭與不爭1 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》48-2.老子、孔子的爭與不爭2 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》49.學詩的啟發 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》50.文獻的重要 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》51.讓人看不下去的盛大典禮 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》52.天下事瞭如指掌 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 53.祭祀的要領 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 54.公心才是正途 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 55.完備的典章制度 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 56.為何如此多問 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》57.比力量更重要的事
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