唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》38孝道與為政

唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》38孝道與為政

講師:唐瑜凌先生

為政篇第二十一章【經文】 或謂孔子曰:子奚不為政。子曰:書云:「孝乎惟孝,友于兄弟。」施於有政,是亦為政,奚其為為政。

本集課程重點包括:

一、本章歷史背景

      本章的歷史背景,可能是魯昭公被三家大夫逼迫出走至齊國,以至於魯國沒有國君,當然孔子不願意在魯國為政;也有可能是魯定公在位,三家大夫同樣專權的時期;又或者是孔子周遊列國回到魯國,因為魯哀公還是受制於三家大夫,所以孔子不為政。以上古注所考證的時間,都有可能。

 

二、孔子引用書經經句的典故

      書云:「孝乎惟孝,友於兄弟。」出自《尚書》的君陳篇,君陳是周公的兒子,分封到東都雒邑,管理的是商朝的遺民,這段話是君陳受封時,周公對他的教誨。

 

三、孝弟的功用

      《孝經》裡面講,孝可以修身、齊家、治國、平天下。孝道的功效,範圍實在太廣了!所以說:「孝啊,只有孝啊!」古代是大家庭,「友於兄弟」的人,是一個能夠凝聚家族的人才,並不簡單。

 

四、孝弟之道可用於為政

      在家能把家庭的事情辦好,在國裡面才能把國事辦好,因為孝弟之道就是為政的根本,可以改善風氣,真正辦出利益大眾的政治。

 

為政篇第二十一章白話翻譯

【字詞解釋】

奚:ㄒㄧ,何。

 

【白話解釋】

      有人問孔子,何不居位為政?孔子引書經回答:書經對孝的讚美到達了極處,所謂「孝乎惟孝,友于兄弟」,居家首須盡孝道,唯令盡於孝道,沒有別的選擇,且須善于兄弟,即兄弟之間互相友愛。古代帝王重視孝悌之道,辦政治與辦教育都以孝悌之道為內涵。在家能孝順父母並友愛兄弟,即是為政之道。孝友是為政根本,何必要居位才是為政。

 

【章旨】

      此章言「孝友」與「為政」同,即齊家可以推而治國,齊家為政不必居位也。

 

《論語講要》原文

      或人問孔子,子何不為政。包注:「或人以為,居位乃是為政。」孔子引書經解答。

      「孝乎惟孝,友于兄弟。」此二句出於古文尚書君陳篇,今文學家說是逸書文。漢石經「孝乎」作「孝于」。惠棟九經古義,謂後儒據君陳篇改于為乎。乎于古通用。此二句朱子集注讀:「孝乎,惟孝友于兄弟。」今從古讀,至惟孝為一句。孝乎,讚美孝道。惟孝,再加讚美。友于兄弟,包注:「善于兄弟。」

      施於有政三句,各注考據,皆是孔子語。「施於有政。」包注:「施,行也。所行有政道。」此意是說,施行孝友,即有為政之道。「是亦為政。」是,指施行孝友而言。行此孝友二者,亦是為政。「奚其為為政。」皇疏:「何用為官位乃是為政乎。」

      孔子答意,雖然不在官位,只要在家施行孝友,亦是為政。孝友是為政之本,除此之外,何事算是為政,故云:「奚其為為政。」

 

Teacher Tang Yuling will accompany you to read The Analects 38

38.Book 2 Wei Zheng (Of Governance), Chapter 21

 

 [Text]

Some one addressed Confucius, saying, “Sir, why are you not engaged in the government?” The Master said, “What does the Shu Jing say of filial piety? - ‘You are filial, you discharge your brotherly duties. These qualities are displayed in government.’ This then also constitutes the exercise of government. Why must there be THAT - making one be in the government?”

 

Highlights of this lecture include:

1. Historical Background

  It was probably taken place during the reign of Duke Zhao of Lu. Duke Zhao was coerced to leave, and became an absentee head of state lived in exile at the State of Qi. Confucius left Lu, unwilling to serve the three families. Or, the sayings might happened during the time of Duke Ding under the influence of the notorious three families in control. Or, the sayings might be in the time after the Master returned from his famous Travels Around the States. At that time, Duke Ai was still rule under the shadow of the three families. Confucius did not want to involve in politics. Those above-mentioned three periods proofed by classic annotations might reflect certain aspects of the historical background of this chapter. 

 

2. Confucius quoted the Shang Shu (AKA Shu Jing; The Book of Documents)

  [Shang] Shu says: “You are filial, you discharge your brotherly duties.”—as cited in the Analects. Proper version quoted in the Shang Shu is: “Being filial, and friendly with your brethren, you can display these qualities...”

  It’s a quote from the chapter of Jun Chen in the Zhou Book of the ancient classics Shang Shu. Jun Chen君陳 was the name of the son of the duke of Zhou (Zhougong周公) who was enfeoffed the eastern border at Luoyi雒邑by the king of Zhou. He was overlord of the territories and to regulate and looked after Yin’s descendants of Shang moved there. The quote was part of the instruction Zhougong for his son Jun Chen upon his appointment.  

 

3. The effects of being filial and fraternal

  The Xiao Jing 孝經or The Classic of Filial Piety stated that the practice of filial piety kicked start the process of character building in a person, ascended his capacity to lead a state or the whole country, also commenced familial harmony at the same time. Filial practice is magnificent in its scope of influences; so, as it was acclaimed: “It was filial piety the first of all [as the key of all virtues]. They can only be achieved by means of filial piety.” In ancient extended families, those who could fulfill his fraternal duties brought cohesion and solidarity to the family must be a person of ability because it was no easy task at all. 

 

4. The practice of filial and fraternal duties foster the capability of governance.

  “Being filial, and friendly with your brethren, you can display these qualities in the exercise of government” [from Sheng Shu] In fact, the practice of filial and fraternal duties are fundamentals of good governance. As family affairs can be well taken care of, then one can effectuate a transfer of his ability to state affairs to benefit more people through political means.

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唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》38孝道與為政

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2020-3-23

唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》

系列課程
唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要—1.序言 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 11.溫良恭儉讓 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 12.父在觀其志 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 13.禮之用 和為貴 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 14.信近於義 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 15.君子如何好學 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 16.貧而無諂 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 17.不患人之不己知 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 18.為政以德 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 19.思無邪 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 20.道之以德 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 21.孔子一生的年譜 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 22.孟懿子問孝 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 23.孟武伯問孝 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 24.子游問孝 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 25.子夏問孝 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 26.吾與回言終日 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 27.看人的方法 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 28.溫故而知新 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 29.君子不器 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 30.子貢問君子 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 1-2.問與答 什麼是天命 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 2.學而時習之 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 3.其為人也孝弟 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 4.巧言令色 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 5.吾日三省 唐瑜淩老師陪你讀論語講要 5-2.問與答 談學習與改過 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 6.道千乘之國 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 7.弟子入則孝 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 8.賢賢易色 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 9.君子不重則不威 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 10.慎終追遠 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 31.君子周而不比 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 32.學思並重 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 33.攻乎異端 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 34.如何求取真知 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 35.如何為官 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》36.如何讓人民信服 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》37.使民敬忠以勸 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》39.人而無信不知其可也 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》40.預知百代以後 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》41.諂媚而無勇的行為 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》38孝道與為政
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