唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》37.使民敬忠以勸

唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》37.使民敬忠以勸

講師:唐瑜凌先生

為政篇第二十章【經文】 季康子問:使民敬忠以勸,如之何。子曰:臨之以莊則敬,孝慈則忠,舉善而教不能,則勸。

本集課程重點包括:

一、本章歷史背景

      季康子是魯國的權臣,從季文子、季武子、季平子、季桓子到季康子,季氏家族五代專權,到了季康子,已經掌握魯國二分之一的稅收,二分之一的軍隊,從來不把魯君看在眼裡,所以上行下效,魯國風氣爾虞我詐,各自追逐自己的利益。

 

二、季康子問的是為政要領

      為政者領導老百姓,要讓老百姓把政策當一回事,能夠效忠國家,在風氣不好的時候,大家可以互相勸勉,這些都是為政的要領。

 

三、孔子精要地說明為政方法

      孔子教導季康子,上位者莊重,老百姓就會恭敬,莊重來自於說話算話、有為有守,能夠要求自己;在家盡孝,以身作則來教百姓盡孝,並且把百姓當成家人般慈愛,百姓就會效忠國家;找到好的典範教導不願為善之人,風氣就會慢慢變化,使百姓互相勸勉,讓社會秩序回歸到正軌。

 

為政篇第二十章白話解釋

【白話解釋】

      季康子,季桓子之子,是魯國三家大夫中的季氏,是三家中掌權最重者。

      季康子請教孔子,如何使人民對上位者恭敬忠誠、勸勉為善?孔子回答,國君以莊嚴的態度面臨民眾,百姓自然就對國君恭敬。國君以孝道教導人民,並能慈愛百姓,人民自然盡忠。國君能舉用善人,又能教化不能之人,則人民自能互相規勸導正,此是謂不勸之勸。

 

【章旨】

      此章季康子之問皆在使民,孔子三答皆在教季康子用道德修養去領導人民。

 

《論語講要》原文

      季康子,魯大夫季孫氏,名肥,諡康。魯卿三家,世襲專政,民心不服。康子乃問孔子,如何使民對上恭敬盡忠,以及勸勉為善。以勸的以字,古注作與字講。孔子答曰,君以莊嚴面臨民眾,則能使民敬君。君以孝道教民,並能以慈待民,則能使民盡忠。君能舉用善人,而又教化不能之人,則民自能相勸而善。

      邢疏說,當時季氏專執國政,猶如國君。故孔子之答,皆以人君之事言之。

 

【雪公講義】

      孝慈則忠句,各解紛紜。黃氏後案曰:「孝慈則忠」。諸家說甚費解,式三謂「孝」當作「(音教)」,謂引導之使人可仿效也。

      【按】黃氏所云,本句可通,但與全文不貫,且他本罕見,姑備一說。孝經云:「夫孝,始於事親,中於事君,終於立身。」細審季康子之三問,皆在使民;而使者在君,從乃在民。君能莊臨,而民自敬。教民以孝,民始孝親;中則忠君,如子孝父矣。然君必以慈臨之,如親慈子,故曰:「孝慈則忠」;否則犬馬路人,草芥寇讎矣。舉彼善者,教他不善者,民自相觀而善;是不勸之勸。此章三答,有直接,有雙用,有旁通,言與文,婉轉入微。

      (犬馬草芥二句,引自孟子離婁篇:「君之視臣如犬馬,則臣視君如國人。君之視臣如土芥,則臣視君如寇讎。」引文略為變更,以便解說而已。)

 

Teacher Tang Yuling will accompany you to read The Analects 37

37.Book 2 Wei Zheng (Of Governance), Chapter 20

 

 [Text]

Ji Kang asked how to cause the people to reverence their ruler, to be faithful to him, and to go on to nerve themselves to virtue. The Master said, “Let him preside over them with gravity; then they will reverence him. Let him be final and kind to all; then they will be faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent; then they will eagerly seek to be virtuous.”

 

Highlights of this lecture include:

1. Historical Background

  Ji Kangzi季康子was the most powerful minister of Lu and head of the Jisun季孫clan, one of the notorious Three Families that ran the state. The Jisun Family had dominated Lu’s political scene for five generations ever since Ji Wenzi, Ji Wuzi, Ji Pingzi, Ji Huanzi and succeeded by Ji Kangzi. At the time of Ji Kangzi, the Jisun Family mastered one-half of the tax revenue, one-half of the army of Lu. He usurped Lu State power and didn’t take the Duke of Lu seriously. Setting the bad example, Jisun Family’s distorted moral standards brought bad influences to the people, the state of Lu was prevailed with an air of frauds and deceptions. Self-interest was placed above public’s at the expense of state became a common practice.

 

2. Ji Kangzi’s question was essential of governance

  As state leader, it is absolutely important for him to make sure the subjects are willing to earnestly follow government policies and loyal to the country. A state of reverent and faithful subjects will tend to encourage one another to follow laws and order, even in time of corrupted social climate. Reverence and faithfulness of the subjects are essential for policies implementation and positive social influences.

 

3. Confucius essentially explained the method of governance

  Confucius told Ji Kangzi that those who presided over others shall treat the subjects with dignity (gravity) in solemn manners, then the subjects will respect the superiors in return. A leader should keep his words, self-demanding, and act as good example for others to follow; and especially in the practice of filial piety. He should be compassionate to all and kind to the young, as if they were family. Then, people will be faithful. Good people should be picked as models for the society. Let the less competent or less virtuous to learn from and influence by them. That’s, to promote those who are capable and teach those who are not, and they will eagerly seek to be virtuous. After all, good social atmosphere will be enhanced gradually in which people will encourage each other to do good and bring social order back to the right track.

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唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》

系列課程
唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要—1.序言 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 11.溫良恭儉讓 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 12.父在觀其志 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 13.禮之用 和為貴 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 14.信近於義 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 15.君子如何好學 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 16.貧而無諂 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 17.不患人之不己知 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 18.為政以德 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 19.思無邪 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 20.道之以德 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 21.孔子一生的年譜 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 22.孟懿子問孝 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 23.孟武伯問孝 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 24.子游問孝 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 25.子夏問孝 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 26.吾與回言終日 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 27.看人的方法 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 28.溫故而知新 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 29.君子不器 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 30.子貢問君子 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 1-2.問與答 什麼是天命 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 2.學而時習之 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 3.其為人也孝弟 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 4.巧言令色 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 5.吾日三省 唐瑜淩老師陪你讀論語講要 5-2.問與答 談學習與改過 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 6.道千乘之國 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 7.弟子入則孝 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 8.賢賢易色 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 9.君子不重則不威 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 10.慎終追遠 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 31.君子周而不比 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 32.學思並重 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 33.攻乎異端 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 34.如何求取真知 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》 35.如何為官 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》36.如何讓人民信服 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》37.使民敬忠以勸 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》39.人而無信不知其可也 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》40.預知百代以後 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》41.諂媚而無勇的行為 唐瑜凌老師陪你讀《論語講要》38孝道與為政
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