唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 5.吾日三省

唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 5.吾日三省

講師:唐瑜凌先生

學而篇第四章【經文】 曾子曰:吾日三省吾身。為人謀而不忠乎。與朋友交而不信乎。傳不習乎。

本集課程重點包括:

一、你認識曾子嗎?

曾子被稱為宗聖,就是孔門智慧的傳宗接代者,他是一位能傳承的聖人。曾子小孔子四十六歲,所以孔子過世的時候,曾子才只有二十七歲,而且他天資魯鈍,這告訴我們年輕人不宜妄自菲薄,只要肯努力,年輕就可以擁有很好的成就。

 

二、這三件事情有什麼重要?

曾子用來反省自己的三件事很重要:1.誠心誠意替人著想,這是人生成功的秘密。2.以信相交的朋友,才能互相扶持,共同奮鬥,這是生命最珍貴的資產。3.傳承、學習、練習,才能培養內涵、培養能力、培養後進,將所學得的寶藏,繼續往下傳,利益社會大眾。

 

三、本章與前章的關係

前一章提醒我們巧言令色則鮮以仁;這一章更告訴我們,把所學往下傳,讓社會大眾有美好的內涵,豐富的生命,這是行仁最好的表現。

 

學而篇第四章白話解釋

【字詞解釋】

省:ㄒㄧㄥˇ,反省檢查。

為:ㄨㄟˋ,替、給。

 

【白話解釋】

    曾參,字子輿,魯國人,孔子弟子,少孔子四十六歲,得到傳承。世稱曾子,有宗聖之稱。

    曾子說:我每天以三件事省察自身,一省為人辦事是否盡忠、盡全力。二省與朋友交往是否言而有信,不欺朋友也不欺自心。三省傳習,是否能把學問、文化傳下去?而傳授給學生徒弟,自己有沒有先溫習?反省忠、信、傳習三事都有做到,方能安心就寢。

 

【章旨】

    此章敘曾子為學之工夫,每日以三事省察自身。

 

《論語講要》原文

    曾子,孔子弟子,姓曾名參字子輿。參讀森,輿,驂也,參亦可讀驂。孔子嘗曰:「參也魯」。然勤能補拙,人一能之己百之。夫子之道,終由曾子一以貫之。

    此章敘曾子為學之工夫,每日以三事省察自身。一省為人辦事是否盡忠。忠者盡其全力也。二省與朋友交是否言而有信。信即不欺朋友,亦即不欺自心。三省傳習,受師之傳,行之也否?傳授生徒,先自溫習否?忠信傳習三事不闕,方能安心就寢。傳不習乎之習字,與前章學而時習相映。忠信是學習之要點。

 

【雪公講義】

    【考證】禮大學篇:是故君子有大道,必忠信以得之。本篇:主忠信,無友不如己者。述而篇:子以四教,文行忠信。

    【按】道德仁義禮樂,以及修齊治平諸端,均須以忠信為主施行之。具此篤純始得其成。學亦如之。仍與崇仁求學互映。至「日」字、「三」字,各註紛然,要在省身,餘不拘泥求異。

 

 

Teacher Tang Yuling will accompany you to read The Analects

5.Book 1 Xue Er (On Learning), Chapter 4

 

Highlights of this lecture include:

1. What do you know about Zeng-zi?

  Zeng-zi is revered as “Zong Sheng,” one of the Four Sages of Confucianism, which means he is the successor and eminent philosopher in the Confucian tradition. Zeng-zi was 46 years younger than Confucius. So when Confucius passed away, Zeng-zi was only 27 years old. And his talent was rather dull and slow to understand. His example tells us that young people shouldn’t be improperly belittle one’s capability. As long as you work hard, you can have good achievements in young age.

 

2. What is the importance of these three things?

  Three important things needed to know about Zeng-zi’s introspection: (1) Putting others first with all sincerity is the secret of success in life.  (2) Friends who meet by faith can support each other and work together. This is the most precious asset of life.  (3) Inheriting, studying, and practicing of what we have learned are the best ways to foster our great capacities and ability. So that, in turn, for the purpose of public good, we can pass the precious knowledge on and on to other generations.

 

3. This chapter is related to the previous one

  The previous chapter reminds us that someone who flatters others with fine words and wear sycophantic looks is seldom associated with true virtues. This chapter tells us that we have to pass the great learning on to other generations, and to spread and put the good culture of “Ren” in operation human-wide.

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唐瑜凌老師陪你讀論語講要 5.吾日三省

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